Ko су ученици са ниским скоровима на тестовима постигнућа у ТИМСС истраживању: компаративна анализа

Ивана Д. Ђерић, Институт за педагошка истраживања, Београд, Република Србија, имејл: ivana.brestiv@gmail.com
Рајка С. Ђевић, Институт за педагошка истраживања, Београд, Република Србија
Душица М. Малинић, Институт за педагошка истраживања, Београд, Република Србија
Иновације у настави, XXXIII, 2020/4, стр. 27–47

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DOI: 10.5937/inovacije2004027D

 

Резиме: У фокусу овог раду су ученици четвртог разреда основне школе који су остварили ниске скорове на ТИМСС (енг. Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study3) тесту из математике и природних наука. Како би се испитале одређене карактеристике ових ученика, постављена су два истраживачка питања: (1) по чему се ученици са ниским постигнућем у Србији разликују од осталих ученика из истог узорка у погледу личних и породичних карактеристика и (2) да ли се ученици са ниским постигнућем из Србије, Хрватске и Словеније разликују на нивоу личних, породичних, наставних и школских карактеристика. Подаци су анализирани на два подузорка. Један подузорак обухватио је само ученике из Србије (N=4036), док се други односио на ученике са ниским постигнућем из три упоређиване земље (N=1876). Резултати истраживања показују да се у Србији ученици са ниским постигнућем значајно разликују од осталих ученика према појединим индивидуалним и породичним карактеристикама ‒ у мањем броју су похађали предшколске установе и краће боравили у њима, били су слабије припремљени за полазак у школу, више су изостајали из школе и имали су мање образоване родитеље. Уочљиве су и разлике између наших ученика са ниским постигнућем и њихових вршњака из региона који су постигли сличне резултате. На пример, ученици из Србије су имали мање образоване родитеље и мањи број оних који обављају стручна занимања, мање образовних ресурса за учење код куће, али су испољили веће математичко самопоуздање и имали израженији доживљај припадности школи. Издвојене су кључне импликације овог истраживања и указано је и на његове предности и ограничења.
Кључне речи: ТИМСС тест, ученици са ниским постигнућем, личне, породичне, наставне и школске карактеристике.

Summary: This paper focuses on the fourth-grade elementary school pupils who achieved low scores on the TIMSS test in mathematics and natural sciences. In order to examine certain characteristics of these pupils, two research questions were posed: (1) What makes the low-achieving pupils in Serbia different from other pupils from the same sample in terms of personal and family characteristics? (2) Do the low-achieving pupils from Serbia, Croatia, and Slovenia differ at the level of personal, family, teaching, and school characteristics? The data were analyzed in two subsamples. One subsample included only the pupils from Serbia (N = 4036), while the other referred to the low-achieving pupils from three compared countries (N = 1876). The research results indicate that in Serbia, the low-achieving pupils differ significantly from other pupils in terms of some individual and family characteristics ‒ they attended preschool institutions in a smaller number and spent less time in them, were less prepared for starting elementary school, were absent more frequently from school, and had less educated parents. There are also noticeable differences between our low-achieving pupils and their peers from the region who achieved similar results. For example, the pupils from Serbia had less educated parents and a smaller number of those who had professional occupations, fewer educational resources for learning at home, but they showed greater mathematical self-confidence and had a more pronounced experience of belonging to their school. The key implications of this research have been highlighted and its advantages and limitations pointed out.
Keywords: TIMSS test, pupils with low achievement, personal, family, teaching, and school characteristics.

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