Фонолошке способности деце предшколског узраста

Славица М. Голубовић, Факултет за специјалну едукацију и рехабилитацију, имејл: nevenajecmenica88@gmail.com
Невена Д. Радивојевић, Факултет за специјалну едукацију и рехабилитацију
Невена Р. Јечменица, Факултет за специјалну едукацију и рехабилитацију
Универзитет у Београду, Факултет за специјалну едукацију и рехабилитацију
Иновације у настави, XXXII, 2019/3, стр. 74–89

| PDF | | Extended summary PDF |
doi: 10.5937/inovacije1903074G

 

Резиме: Циљ истраживања је утврђивање фонолошких способности ‒ гласовне анализе и синтезе у речима ‒ и елемената фонолошке свесности код деце предшколског узраста. Испитивани узорак чини осамдесет петоро деце (четрдесет два дечака и четрдесет три девојчице), узраста од шест до седам година. За процену способности гласовне анализе и синтезе примењен је Тест гласовне анализе и синтезе у речима (Radičević & Marinković, 1993), док је за процену фонолошке свесности примењен Тест за процену фонолошке свесности ‒ ФОНТ тест (Subotić, 2011). Резултати истраживања су показали да су приликом процене елемената фонолошке свесности деца на шест од осам задатака показала просечну и натпросечну развијеност фонолошких способности: спајање слогова, слоговна сегментација, идентификовање почетног фонема, препознавање риме, фонемска сегментација и идентификовање завршног фонема, док су најнижа постигнућа остварена на задацима елиминације почетног фонема и фонемске супституције почетног фонема. Нису утврђене статистички значајне разлике између дечака и девојчица у постигнућу на задацима у оквиру ФОНТ теста (p>0.05). Даљом анализом резултата утврдили смо да су деца из узорка била успешнија на задацима синтезе једносложних и двосложних речи у односу на анализу једносложних и двосложних речи, посматрајући резултате просечног постигнућа. На задацима анализе и синтезе гласова утврђене су разлике у постигнућу међу дечацима и девојчицама на задацима синтезе гласова (p<0.05).

Кључне речи: анализа гласова, синтеза гласова, фонолошка свесност, фонолошке способности.

 

Summary: The aim of the research is to identify phonological abilities – voice analysis and word synthesis – and elements of phonological awareness in preschool children. The sample consisted of 85 children (42 boys and 43 girls), ages 6-7. The Test of the Speech Sound Analysis and Word Synthesis (Radičević & Marinković, 1993) was used to assess the ability of the speech sound analysis and synthesis, while the Test for Assessing Phonological Awareness – FONT Test (Subotić, 2011) was used to assess the respondents’ phonological awareness.
The results of the research showed that, in six out of eight tasks assessing the elements of phonological awareness, the children demonstrated an average and above average development of phonological abilities: syllable merging, syllabic segmentation, identifying the initial phoneme, identifying rhyme, phonemic segmentation, and identifying the final phoneme, while the lowest achievement was observed in the tasks of eliminating the initial phoneme and phonemic substitution of the initial phoneme. No statistically significant differences were found between boys and girls in their achievement on the FONT test tasks (p> 0.05). By further analyzing the results, and based on the results of average achievement, we found that the children constituting the research sample were more successful in the tasks of synthesizing monosyllabic and two-syllable words, than in the analysis of monosyllabic and two-syllable words. Differences in achievement between boys and girls regarding the speech sound analysis and synthesis tasks were identified in the tasks involving the speech sound synthesis (p <0.05).

Keywords: speech sound analysis, speech sound synthesis, phonological awareness, phonological abilities.

 

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