Развијеност компоненти појма мерење дужине код ученика првог разреда основне школе

Милица Д. Антић, ОШ „Бранко Ћопић“, Београд
Оливера Ј. Ђокић, Универзитет у Београду, Учитељски факултет, имејл: olivera.djokic@uf.bg.ac.rs
Иновације у настави, XXXI, 2018/1, стр. 58–74

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doi: 10.5937/inovacije1801058A

 

Резиме: Резултати међународних истраживања, нпр. ТИМСС, показују да је ученичко разумевање геометријских садржаја често на нижем нивоу у односу на садржаје других области математике. Како бисмо открили узрок, усредсредили смо се на почетак основношколског математичког образовања тражећи основне разлоге нижег постигнућа ученика у овој области. Испитивали смо успешност ученика првог разреда у области Мерење и мере, са акцентом на мерење дужине. Циљ рада је био да утврдимо колико су ученици првог разреда успешно овладали појмом мерење дужине, који се састоји од компоненти на којима се заснива поступак мерења; реч је о следећим компонентама: раздељивање, надовезивање мерне јединице, транзитивност, конзервација, акумулација удаљености и релација између мерног броја и мерне јединице. Примењена је дескриптивна метода. Основни закључци рада јесу да код ученика постоји велики јаз у усвојености појма мерење дужине и компонентама од којих је појам састављен, као и да тада важећи наставни програм из математике, који је утицао на рад учитеља и на ауторе уџбеника, није пружао сигурну основу и подршку учитељима у раду. Нови План и програм наставе и учења за први разред делимично садржи измене које су у складу са резултатима нашег истраживања. Па ипак, за даља истраживања предлажемо сагледавање формирања појма мерење дужине кроз све његове компоненте, и то кроз практичне подстицаје и просторно искуство ученика, као и кроз примере у којима би ученици уочавали односе тела у простору, упоређивали величине тела и сл.

Кључне речи: мерење дужине, компоненте појма мерење дужине, почетна настава геометрије, наставни програм.

 

Summary: Results of the international research, for example TIMSS, show that student’s understanding of geometrical contents is often below the level in comparison the contents of other areas of mathematics. For revealing the cause, we focused on the beginning of primary school mathematical education, searching for the basic results of the lower achievements of students in this field. We studied achievements o students of the first grade in the field of Measuring and Measurements, with the stress on measuring length. The aim of the paper was to determine in which extent the students of the first grade were successful in mastering the term of measuring length, which is composed on components upon which the procedure of measuring is established. The following components are in question: dividing, sequencing the measuring unit, transitivity, conservation, accumulation of the distance and relation between the measuring number and measuring unit. Descriptive method was used. The basic conclusion of the paper are that there is a huge gap concerning adoption of the term measuring length and the components out of which it is composed, as well as that the existing mathematics syllabus in those days, which influenced the work of teachers and authors of the course book did not offer sage basis and support to teachers’ work. New syllabus for the first grade contains some changes in accordance with the results of our research. Nevertheless, for the further research we suggest observing the forming of the term measuring length through all its components, and this would be through practical stimulation and special experience of students, as well as through examples in which the students would observe the relations of the objects in space, compare the sizes of the bodies, etc.

Key words: measuring length, components of the term measuring length, initial teaching geometry, and syllabus.

 

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