Ефекти примене методе учења путем решавања проблема у настави природних наука

Катарина Б. Путица, Универзитет у Београду, Иновациони центар Хемијског факултета, имејл: puticakatarina@gmail.com
Драгица Д. Тривић, Универзитет у Београду, Хемијски факултет
Иновације у настави, XXXII, 2019/4, стр. 21–31

 

| PDF | | Extended summary PDF |
doi: 10.5937/inovacije1904021P 

 

Резиме: Циљ овог рада био је да се упореди ефективност наставе засноване на примени методе учења путем решавања проблема и традиционалне рецептивне наставе у области природних наука. Имајући у виду најчешће проблеме са којима се ученици суочавају приликом учења природних наука, а за које је утврђено да су у великој мери последица традиционалне рецептивне наставе, постављене су четири истраживачке хипотезе: примена методе учења путем решавања проблема доводи до бољег разумевања градива природних наука (Х1), позитивнијег односа ученика према природним наукама (Х2), боље саморегулације процеса учења природних наука (Х3) и бољих академских постигнућа ученика у области природних наука (Х4) у односу на рецептивну наставу. Академска постигнућа ученика у области природних наука разматрана су искључиво као квантитативни аспект успешности ученика, због чега је разумевање, као један од нивоа квалитативног аспекта успешности, разматрано у посебној хипотези. Да би се проверила тачност постављених хипотеза, примењена је метаанализa, за чију израду су искоришћени резултати из двадесет три научна рада, на основу којих су, за сваку од хипотеза, израчунате одговарајуће средње вредности ES. На основу ових вредности потврђена је тачност све четири постављене хипотезе, а тиме и велики потенцијал методе учења путем решавања проблема да унапреди квалитет наставе у области природних наука.

Кључне речи: учење путем решавања проблема, рецептивна настава, природне науке, метаанализа.

 

Summary: The aim of this paper was to compare the effectiveness of the problem-based teaching method with traditional receptive teaching in the field of natural sciences. Bearing in mind the most frequent problems pupils are faced with when learning natural sciences, and that these problems are mainly the consequence of traditional receptive teaching, four research hypotheses have been proposed in the paper: compared to the traditional receptive teaching, problem-based teaching method promotes better understanding of the academic content of natural sciences (H1), a more positive attitude of students toward natural sciences (H2), better self-regulation of the learning of natural sciences (H3), and a better academic achievement of students in the field natural sciences (H4). The academic achievement of students in the field of natural sciences was considered solely as a quantitative aspect of students’ performance, which is why understanding, as one of the levels of qualitative aspect of students’ performance, was considered in a separate hypothesis. In order to verify these hypotheses, meta-analysis was conducted. For the purpose of conducting this meta-analysis, the results obtained from 23 scientific papers were used to calculate corresponding mean values of ES for each of the hypotheses. On the basis of the calculated mean values of ES, all four hypotheses, as well as the great potential of the problem-based method to improve the quality of teaching in the field of natural sciences, have been verified.

Keywords: problem-based learning, receptive teaching, natural sciences, meta-analysis.

 

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